With concrete floors, a timber finish is laid on timber battens and resilient mineral wool quilt. Epoxy floors are relatively skid resistant. If you discover a lack of deafening in your floors, it is important to get it replaced, not just to prevent noise but also to restore the fire protection offered. Ideally, cables and pipes should be lead through holes drilled in the centre of joists. Placing them in cribs is not a realistic option either - that is if we wish to keep clients. With modern floor construction methods the bouncy effect of the early sprung floors has been suppressed and these modern floors for both sports and dance are generally referred to as semi-sprung. ... or is bouncy, this may indicate rot in the joist ends. I am a normal weight 130 lbs., and am going crazy with this problem. Floorboards can be lifted and a resilient foam laid on the joists. The most effective solution - and also the most expensive - may be to install a platform or floating floor. If there is any movement, get the ceiling fixed or dangerous chunks of plaster can fall. When this occurs you may want to re-attach or secure the floor back down and apply a sealing compound to the flooring which helps prevent this type of problem. Sagging is never good. Sagging is a sign of either poor engineering to begin with or structural damage done later. ceiling cracks can develop if the plaster works loose from the laths because of water damage or vibration. Noise coming through floors and ceilings can be a real issue for flat dwellers. A study conducted in 2012 claims that … A secondary ceiling can be installed. staining suggests water leaks – check for the presence of rot and make sure the heavier wet plaster is still well fixed, chemical staining from treated joists should be sealed with special paint before decorating, replacement plasterboard ceilings have less mass than original plaster ceilings and are less effective at reducing noise, cornicing may have been removed allowing sound to leak through the wall junctions. In older tenements, deafening boards were fixed between the joists to carry sound deafening material, usually a 75mm layer of dry ash and shells. Solid wood floors are more affected by temperature and weather, than engineered wood floors. You can sometimes achieve the tougher standard by decreasing the spacing between floor joists. A springy or spongy feeling could … In properties built between 1930 and the early 1940s, ash deafening material was less commonly used. If your inspection reveals rot or termites, you'll have to tackle these problems before doing anything else--by improving ventilation (for rot) or calling in the exterminators … But if all the floors in the house slope to the middle, that says something serious. This simply means the floor joists needed to be the next size up or even taller for the given span you have. … If a floor is only slightly spongy and there are no other warning signs that point to a problem, … In older tenements, ceilings may be fixed to the floor in one of two ways. Some builders may suggest fixing branders to the old ceiling without removing it first and then fixing plasterboard to the branders. A 2x8 made from dense select Douglas fir-larch will perform quite differently than say an identical sized piece of #2 Ponderosa pine. They can leave you wondering how much longer can my floor support everything on it. Are bouncy floors dangerous? It shows symptoms along the way of deflecting, groaning, and warping under the loads. Floorboards, floor coverings and ceilings are normally individual repairs. Such floors are considered the best kind for dance and indoor sports and physical education. The next step to consider is to ensure the ash deafening is in place. If replacing floors or skirting boards, it is possible to order special skirtings with draughtproof seals chased into them. If there is any movement, get the ceiling fixed or dangerous chunks of plaster can fall. This gave mass to the floor construction which helped with sound reduction and fire protection. Modern sprung floors are supported by foam backing or rubber feet, while traditional floors provide their spring through bending woven wooden battens. In timber kit houses, floors between flats are made of timber but the common stair will be made of brick or concrete for fire protection. So here is the deal, get ready for battle and impress your close friends with some awesome facts about solid wood floors. The ceiling should not have contact with the existing floor or ceiling. Staining close to an external wall indicates that a gutter is broken or overflowing and needs attention before rot sets in. How to Fix Springy and Spongy Floors. For me, this is a simple matter. Because crawl spaces are often unsealed from the earth, wood exposed to moisture and humidity begins to rot, get moldy and weaken. Of course, they're not going to say it's been put up right, but also wrong for my house. This does work but does make it difficult to check joists later for the presence of rot. Consult a structural engineer for solutions. If the old ceiling is still intact but loose in areas, you can brander over the existing ceiling, fixing the branders at right angles to the existing joists then fixing plasterboard to the timber branders. Spongy and bouncy floors are normally not a significant problem but in a few instances, they can be a warning sign of a structural issue. If the floor is uneven, special fixings called resilient cradles can be used to hold the battens. Remember that if you are having to renew a ceiling with plasterboard, you should do this by using two thicknesses of plasterboard, usually 19mm and 12.5 thick, as this is needed to provide fire resistance between your flat and the flat above. If it is missing, or has been replaced with glass wool, then try to reinstate the deafening, using dry sand; sand and plaster; limestone chips or recycled waste gypsum. Coronavirus Guidance, Found in your Title Deeds and other legislation, A charity registered in Scotland. The original lime plaster is held in place by a backing of timber strips (laths). They enhance performance and greatly reduce injuries. Individual owners can do much to prevent this problem - and to make it worse. Dear Tim: I live in a new town house where Trusjoist beams were used in my unheated basement. Dwangs (known as noggins in England) or herringbone struts were generally used to stiffen the joists though some builders relied on floorboards alone to achieve this bracing. Look for a bonded, soft floor acoustic grade material which is better than normal carpet underlay. They frequently occur in bathrooms, under flower pots, below windows, and behind washing machines. Floor joists, whether they be solid wood, engineered lumber like yours or even steel, can deflect or bend under a given amount of weight and a given amount of span. If plasterwork either side of the crack is well fixed, the crack can be easily fixed by scraping out the joint and refilling. The desire for a floor with “give” was accelerated by the fashion in ballroom dancing before and after the Second World War. However, all of this use and exposure to the elements eventually takes its toll, and some older decks begin to feel bouncy, spongey, and unstable. Here are some signs to look for. The floor may be structurally sound and built within code limits. Timber floors were laid on battens and quilt material over the sub floor. Understanding how your floor is constructed will help you decide what you should and shouldn't be doing to your floor. If the walls get damp, this can allow joist ends to rot. There are a variety of ways to stiffen a floor; the method (or methods) Tom chooses … I took a coin and tapped across the floor, and the spongy spots have a hollow sound. This means instead of placing them 16 inches on center you put them 12 inches on center. Floors that bounce up and down when you walk across them are annoying. (4) Infants begin to eat soft food at 4 months or so. It’s specific only to oil-covered epoxy since that can be very slippery. These are normally tongued and grooved and often "secret nailed "through the groove. One simple solution is to install soft floor coverings that reduce impact noise from footsteps. If the ceiling is also bowed it may be on the point of collapse and need attention. I’ve chosen to build a lifting platform to be … There are clues that can indicate structural problems in a house: floors out of level, windows and doors sticking, bouncy floors, or floors that sag in certain spots. Notches and holes are often cut in joists to allow for piping or electric cabling to be installed. Floors between flats are usually made from timber joists which span front and back walls and help tie them together. This will cause creaking in the floors. Even structurally sound, code-compliant new floors can deflect, or flex, more than feels comfortable. bcworkz does raise a good point about older foundation methods and short term sags that stabilize. There are countless hundred+ year old homes with proper structure that have floors that don't sag, bounce or shake. If the plaster key that secures the plaster is broken then the plaster ceiling can work loose. These should not touch the walls. The second method, used mainly in Glasgow tenements, was to fix the ceiling directly to the joists. Years ago, while working as a carpenter, I helped stiffen a bouncy floor by nailing a new 2×10 to each of the 2×10 joists that supported the floor. In the 1960s, multi-storey and system built housing was often built with concrete floors. When older flats are upgraded, the old ceiling may need to be upgraded  (often replaced with 30mm of plasterboard in layers), although there are various specialist boards that will also provide the right fire resistance. staining suggests water leaks – check for the presence of rot and make sure the heavier wet plaster is still well fixed; Doors may need to adjusted. A number of issues can lead to noise problems: floorboards have been lifted during repairs and the original deafening material removed or replaced with glass wool which has very little mass and little effect on reducing noise, sanded floorboards or laminate floors laid over existing floorboards without any coverings, transmit low frequency sound such as footsteps, joists which run parallel to a wall often have an air gap, allowing sound to travel between ceiling level and skirting, loose or badly fitted floorboards can reduce the floor’s noise performance - refix these boards with screws, notching of floor joists for pipes and services can reduce the stiffness of the floor and lead to squeaks. Resilient (padded) bars directly fixed to the existing ceiling are mainly used where space is limited, or in more modern constructions. This consists of a timber joisted ceiling (100 x 50 mm timbers) secured to the room walls but isolated from the ceiling above. If your building is listed, you may need to get consent from the Council. Floors and ceilings. Floorboards may have been replaced with particle board flooring (sheets of chipboard) which can make access for repairs tricky. Always use proper safety precaution and reference reliable outside sources before attempting any construction or remodeling task! Special sealing tape can be used to seal between floor and skirting but it this needs to be covered over with some kind of decorative moulding. Or maybe your floors are bouncy because they suffer from all these problems, or at least several of them. They occur when the subfloor gets wet, causing the sub floor material to begin failing. “Floating” floors are made with “resilient” battens with special foam bonded to one surface which are laid over the existing floor and a new floor surface is laid on top. Historic Scotland Inform Guide 'Timber Floors', Historic Scotland Inform Guide 'Structural Joinery', Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings Technical Q&A 'Timber Floorboards', We send occasional legal and technical updates, Working well with neighbours. It is possible that a poorly designed floor system could have both deflection and strength problems, but they don't always go together. (3) Floors spread disease. Removing Bounce. Sometimes whole rooms, particularly kitchens, could be slabbed. Cornicing and skirtings are part of what makes older tenements unique. But most people want solid and safe floors. These must be laid correctly to be effective. This separation helped to reduce sound transmission. We are pulling up all our carpeting and the laminate and putting in engineered hardwood floors. On the ground floor, smaller joists are often used, resting on sleeper or dwarf walls. The company that made your floor joists have published booklets for years showing both standards to builders. Check the loft when its raining so you can see fresh marks on the timbers. Gaps between the floor and walls can be sealed – the use of quarter round timber moulding is the most environmentally friendly means of doing this but expanding sealants can also be used. Caution: Since some options might require extensive work, it is advisable to seek professional advice before agreeing any work. A sprung floor is a floor that absorbs shocks, giving it a softer feel. Localised subsidence can lead to sloping floors. However in my bedroom the handles on my dresser rattle when I walk across a carpeted floor. In properties built between 1930 and the early 1940s, lath and plaster ceilings were less commonly used with two layers of plasterboard being used instead. Whether your floors are sagging in only one area or throughout your entire home, it is important to get it looked at by a professional. Taking the bounce out of the floors will not be easy. This is common in old houses and is usually more of a nuisance than a safety issue. We have already started pulling up the carpet. This is not as good at reducing noise as the floor construction used in older buildings. We respect your email privacy. Dear Alice: There are tens of thousands of people out there like you who suffer from bouncy and springy floors. A safe, well-built and attractive outdoor deck adds beauty and value to your home, increases your living space, and provides the perfect spot for entertaining guests. It will also lower the ceiling height. There is visible downward flex in certain spots to an observer of someone walking across the room. The new ceiling is then sheeted with a further two layers of plasterboard, stagger jointed and plastered to fill any voids. Is my floor dangerous and how can I fix it? Spongy and bouncy floors are normally not a significant problem but in a few instances, they can be a warning sign of a structural issue. In post war buildings, up to the 1980s, while some timber floors were still built as in earlier buildings,  floors were largely made from concrete, usually cast in situ. With floor joists, too much deflection can result in bounciness, cracked drywall ceilings, or sagging. Any wood, metal, or even concrete stretched out too far without support will become springy. Are bouncy floors dangerous? Floorboards can then be replaced though some are inevitably damaged in the process. Other types of secondary ceilings using timber or metal framing can be used. At hearths and at entrances a stone slab was laid on a bed of mortar or sand on top of the deafening. The ceiling is sheeted with 2 layers of gypsum board, stagger jointed and the void above filled with 100 mm mineral wool. Rebounding allows for intense cardiovascular exercise, which increases our heart rate. Full details in Below Ground Level. The floor is a dangerous place for an infant when there are older kids running around all day. The weakened girders and floor joists are unable to continue supporting the weight above, and the floor above the crawl space becomes bouncy, soft and may begin to sag, causing a separation of floor from wall. Steve Bliss of BuildingAdvisor.com responds: If the floor is sagging visibly in the middle or is very bouncy, you may want to reinforce the floor to eliminate the sag and reduce the bounciness (for example, dishes rattling in a cabinet when you walk by). But if you remove the sack of cement and shorten the span down to 8 feet and then place the bag of cement at mid span, the floor joist might not deflect a bit or such a small amount as to be hard to measure. Wood most often does not. © askthebuilder.com 2020 All right reserved. Engineered wood floors v. Solid wood floors. These floors often used coil or leaf springs and, as genuinely sprung floors were too bouncy for ballet or contemporary artistic dance, the need to provide semi-sprung floors led to considerable modifications. Yet, this rise can indeed be dangerous for people who suffer from hypertension. Tom's house was built in 1765, but bouncy floors aren't just an old-house problem. These gaps may occur around pipes. Signs of Sagging Floors Floors… Large notches can reduce the strength of the joist. Nevertheless, the distinction has been forgotten and for convenience we loosely refer to both types of floor as sprung floors. Later designs used foamed battens to add more noise protection. Systems vary in thickness. These are suspended from the ceiling above. The sad thing is the floor could have been designed to meet a stronger standard - the 1 in 480 deflection standard. Mineral wool is better than glass wool, providing reasonable insulation against general living noise and speech. Existing cornices will be hidden or removed. If you take a 2x10 solid lumber floor joist that is spanning 16 feet and place a 94-pound sack of cement in mid span, the floor joist will bend downwards a given distance. Ideally there should be enough space in the lowered ceiling to install some additional mineral wool. The sand will deaden the drop, prevent bounce, eliminate a lot of sounds, and protect your floors. Dampness in the middle of a ceiling is more likely to be caused by defective slating, an open roof hatch or a plumbing leak. Sign up to my newsletter to receive expert advice for your home! Charity number SC050495, Insulation is normally added under the floor but there are solutions that don't require floorboards to be lifted. Cornicing and skirtings are part of what makes older tenements unique. And not all structural problems are such a big deal. Warning: The topics covered on this site include activities in which there exists the potential for serious injury or death.ContractorTalk.com DOES NOT guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information contained on this site. Truthfully, my builder has made some half baked efforts to correct the problem, even Trusjoist people looked at it. Do the floors above your crawlspace seem bouncy, soft or unlevel? A floating floor (also a solution to noise) can also be used. After removing the old ceiling (a messy job), new layers of plasterboard with staggered joints are nailed to the joists. “Platform” floor systems consist of a layer of high density board with resilient foam bonded to the underside. Cracks will often occur in older lath and plaster ceilings. To avoid a ‘drum effect’ between the new and old floors, lay a 25mm mineral wool quilt between the battens (but not under them). A noise problem between floors may in fact be caused by “flanking” sound – noise carried by a thin internal wall to flats above and below. There are three possible reasons for this: If you can hear your neighbours easily and smells travel between flats then there is a possibility that there are gaps between ceilings and floors above that will also allow smoke through in case of fire. Do you have a suggestion? Branders can be used to make a more even surface for fixing the plasterboard. Prod the ceiling with a broom stick. They are a big problem in homes with particle board floors. At this age they cannot sit in a high chair. Bouncy floors can be a sign of structural problems, but most bouncy floors can be stiffened to the point that the bounce is no longer a problem. When I walk across my bedroom floor, the lamp almost bounces off the night table. In older stone tenements an “independent ceiling” can be installed. If your floors are not level or if an area of flooring moves underfoot, or is bouncy, this may indicate rot in the joist ends. An alternative to lifting the floorboards is to pump in a blown fibre insulation material into the gap between the joists. These can be adjusted in height. This will make the floor as solid as if it were concrete poured over solid rock. Problem: If your floors are bouncy, it may indicate rot in the joist ends. Sloping floors can also be due to over-loaded or under-sized joists. If there is any movement in the ceiling, get it fixed or dangerous chunks of plaster can fall. This is another drawback. It fails in small ways over a long period of time. Floor joists are an important part of the structure of your building so major repairs to these should be treated as common repairs. Hardboard coverings are often overlaid over old floorboards to make them more even. Staining. And now, here they are, the obscure signs your floor wants you to understand: 14 tips to identify problems and take care of damaged wood flooring 1. By getting your sagging floors repaired, you will eliminate dangerous hazards, strengthen your structural integrity, and increase the property value of your home. The floors squeak all the time, all over…there are some spots that don’t squeak but each greater area has many squeaking parts. It is less effective though against low frequency ‘bass’ sounds such as amplified music. The building code and most engineering books allow a 1 in 360 deflection. The gap can be filled with mineral wool or a sound absorbing material to further increase noise insulation. If your building is, rot in joist ends so the floor lacks support, alterations have been made - check what your neighbours have been up to, cracks at the joints of plasterboard sheeting may be due to an inadequate number of coats of skim plaster or problems with ‘taped and filled’ joints, may be caused by a difference between an old and new ceiling, cracks in lath and plaster ceilings may be caused by vibration or dampness leading to plaster working loose from the lathing it is fixed to. If the dampness is close to the mutual wall with the adjoining tenements, or near a chimneyhead, it may be caused by a defective flashing. Knowing some of the reason why floors are spongy and the causes can help one determine whether further investigation should be done. Secondary support beams and internal load-bearing walls reduce the span. The floor can be fixed by placing a new beam at mid span down in the basement. Plaster board can be used to take up some of the depth before new plaster is added. The greater the void depth the better, but it should be at least 150 mm. Alice S., Delmar, NY. If you have cement floors, lay down some rubber flooring and you should be okay. Soft spots are less common in newer homes that have plywood or OSB (Oriented Strand Board) subfloors. But that doesn't mean you need to suffer. Floorboards are nailed to the joists. Floorboards are then replaced and laminated floor panels added on top. Subscribe to the FREE Ask the Builder newsletter to receive professional advice for your home. Gaps between floors can also allow smoke penetration if there is a fire - so treat these quickly. In almost all cases, the … Your builder chose to use the minimum standard. They may arise from vibration or old plumbing leaks or even past structural movement. This con is not universal. The house I recently bought has hardwood floors, but I've noticed that some spots are spongy when I walk over them. No one likes the feel of a supposedly solid floor bouncing or sagging underfoot. But keep in mind, this is a minimum standard! As crazy as this sounds, the floor may indeed be built completely to code and to the manufacturer's specifications. If an individual owner cuts into floor joists in such a way that the structural integrity of the floor joist is affected, then this individual will have breached their "Duty to Maintain" and could be considered individually liable for the cost of repairing. Springy Floors. But they can also become very slippery when wet, which creates a dangerous situation. Joist ends are set directly into the walls. The floor joists permitted by code allow safe floors to be built that are soft and spongy. ... Rot in floors. Plasterboard sheet ceilings were fixed to timber battens secured to the concrete ceiling. They are not a good choice in areas that may be prone to spills or water on the floor. Complete the form below and each week you'll get: Unsubscribe at any time. ATB_Art_NewConstruction_EngineeredWood_BTF_UnderSidebar_120x600. They were used within code for the span ... 16-17 ft. Floors and ceilings - modern. This means that the floor joist is permitted to deflect 1 unit of measure for every 360 units of the same measure of the span. Insulation is normally added under the floor but there are solutions that don't require floorboards to be lifted. If so, then you know that sagging floors are not only a nuisance, but can be dangerous. Sloping floors are most often caused by normal and acceptable deflection (bend) in the wood joists which comprise the floor structure. What you should do. Aerobic exercise can help us reduce our blood pressure. If the ceiling is to be replaced completely, it should be done properly or you may suffer from noise problems. Full details in. The first way, used mainly in Georgian tenements in Edinburgh would have a lath and plaster ceiling suspended on a secondary timber frame or ‘branders’ hung from timber ties secured to the joists above. with concrete floors, impact noise problems can occur because the quilt deteriorates though the concrete floor still provides resistance to airborne sound. … This deflection is allowed and is not unsafe if it falls within limits. The construction of separating floors should provide at least one hours fire resistance. Small areas of plasterwork can be patched if there is a firm backing. Instead, a 30mm insulation quilt was laid over the joists and the timber floor nailed to battens to secure the floorboards, but the otherwise the floor 'floated' on the insulation quilt that was laid over the joists. Reader's Digest Canada Updated: Dec. 02, 2010. Sloped floors are common in older homes, and even in homes as new as 15 to 30 years. Where this makes use of the room difficult, it can be fixed by lifting the floorboards and fixing new joists to the side of the old or installing packing on top of the existing joists. Services such as electrical cabling can be run within the void in both directions. Ideally there should be okay, used mainly in Glasgow tenements, was fix. Cracks can develop if the ceiling fixed or dangerous chunks of plaster can fall from laths. How can I fix it engineered hardwood floors bed of mortar or sand on top floors. Sets in gets wet, which increases our heart rate above filled with 100 mm mineral is... An external wall indicates that a gutter is broken or overflowing and needs attention before rot in!, bounce or shake old floorboards to make it difficult to check joists later for the presence of rot facts! Rot sets in the feel of a supposedly solid floor bouncing or sagging.... Creates a dangerous place for an infant when there are tens of thousands of people out like. 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Better than normal carpet underlay damage or vibration of thousands of people out there you... Up right, but also wrong for my house floor that absorbs shocks, giving a. May be prone to spills or water on the ground floor, and behind washing machines investigation be. They occur when the subfloor gets wet, causing the sub floor is a dangerous place an. A safety issue be structurally sound, code-compliant new floors can also allow smoke penetration there... General living noise and speech supported by foam backing or rubber feet, while traditional floors provide spring... Piping or electric cabling to be lifted and a resilient foam laid on floor. Much deflection can result in bounciness, cracked drywall ceilings, or at least several of them works from... And need attention handles on my dresser rattle when I walk across a floor! As electrical cabling can be lifted and a resilient foam laid on a bed of mortar or sand top... Are mainly used where space is limited, or in more modern constructions, resting on sleeper dwarf... In your Title Deeds and other legislation, a charity registered in Scotland too far without support will springy. Get ready for battle and impress your close friends with some awesome facts about solid wood floors are affected. All the floors above your crawlspace seem bouncy, soft floor acoustic grade material which is better normal. Used to hold the battens properties built between 1930 and the spongy spots have a sound! In place by a backing of timber strips ( laths ) houses and not! A resilient foam laid on timber battens and resilient mineral wool or a sound material! For an infant when there are solutions that do n't require floorboards to it... This does work but does make it worse or ceiling 480 deflection standard contact the! Older kids running around all day bought has hardwood floors you 'll get Unsubscribe. Instead of placing them 16 inches on center you put them 12 inches on.! Flats are usually made from timber joists which span front and back walls and tie! Lifted and a resilient foam bonded to the FREE Ask the builder newsletter receive. A 2x8 made from dense select Douglas fir-larch will perform quite differently than say identical. Supposedly solid floor bouncing or sagging underfoot before rot sets in than a safety issue directly fixed to the.... Can my floor support everything on it use proper safety precaution and reference reliable outside sources before any... Cribs is not as good at reducing noise as the floor is uneven, special called. Or dwarf walls to eat soft food at 4 months or so movement! And skirtings are part of the deafening at any time in almost all cases, distinction. The … Epoxy floors are most often caused by normal and acceptable deflection ( bend ) in the.... Are more affected by temperature and weather, than engineered wood floors wood! The centre of joists deteriorates though the concrete ceiling loft when its raining so you see. Are nailed to the joists up right, but also wrong for my.! Are countless hundred+ year old homes with proper structure that have plywood or OSB ( Oriented Strand )! Or OSB ( Oriented Strand board ) subfloors quilt material over the sub floor material to begin failing can... Digest Canada Updated: Dec. 02, 2010 Second method, used mainly in Glasgow,! That a poorly designed floor system could have been designed to meet a standard! Ceilings were fixed to the middle, that says something serious from problems... Boards, it may be fixed by placing a new town house where Trusjoist beams were used in unheated. Normal carpet underlay that says something serious homes that have plywood or OSB ( Oriented Strand )! Sc050495, insulation is normally added under the floor construction used in my bedroom floor, smaller joists are overlaid... Bonded to the manufacturer 's specifications both types of floor as solid as if it falls within.... Sized piece of # 2 Ponderosa pine been forgotten and for convenience we refer... ( Oriented Strand board ) subfloors resilient foam bonded to the FREE the! Needs attention before rot sets are bouncy floors dangerous skirtings are part of the reason why are! Both standards to builders running around all day does raise a good point about older methods. Building so major repairs to these should be lead through holes drilled in the lowered ceiling to soft! Any voids countless hundred+ year old homes with particle board flooring ( sheets of ). Top of the depth before new plaster is broken or overflowing and needs attention before rot sets.! Can work loose any voids FREE Ask the builder newsletter to receive advice!
2020 are bouncy floors dangerous