[12] A Roman naval force under Gaius Livius Salinator consisting of 81 ships arrived at Piraeus too late to impact the campaign in mainland Greece. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/article/1516/. He spent more time in his harem at Persepolis than attending to matters of state and otherwise was only interested in completing his building projects. Tensions between the two city-states erupted in the First Peloponnesian War (460-446 BCE), which was fought primarily between Athens and Corinth (an ally of Sparta) to a draw. Regardl… Perhaps the simplest reason for Cimon not pursuing his advantage is that he had no need to. The battle of Pedasus or Pedasa (497 or 496 BC) was the third in a series of battles between the Persians and Carian rebels during the Ionian Revolt, and was a major Persian defeat that effectively ended their first large scale counterattack against the rebels.. Battle of the Eurymedon, c. 466 BCE. In October 196 BC, Antiochus met with a delegation of Roman diplomats in Lysimachia. [27] Polyxenidas thus found himself isolated, as he was unable to face the Romans at sea without significant reinforcements. [31][32] The defeat at Magnesia and the transfer of the Seleucid fleet from Ephesus to Patara led the garrisons of numerous cities including Sardes, Ephesus, Thyatira and Magnesia ad Sipylum to surrender to the Romans. Consequently, after a great slaughter had occurred on account of the disorder among the barbarians, Cimon, who had previously given orders to the soldiers to come running to the torch which would be raised, had the signal raised beside the ships, being anxious lest, if the soldiers should scatter and turn to plundering, some miscarriage of his plans might occur. (XI.60.6-7, 61.1-7). The Battle of the Eurymedon (c. 466 BCE, also given as the Battle of the Eurymedon River) was a military engagement between the Greeks of the Delian League and the forces of the Achaemenid Empire toward the end of the reign of Xerxes I (r. 486-465 BCE). Consequently, thinking that the attack of the enemy was coming from the mainland, they fled to their ships in the belief they were in friendly hands. Since historians recognize the poor attestation of this period, however, it is possible that Diodorus was working from a source unavailable to the others and his account may actually have some elements of truth to it. As a result, he was dismissed and ostracized from Athens in 461 BC; however, he was recalled from his exile before the end of his ten-year ostracism to broker a five-year peace treaty in 451 … Athens clearly thought of itself as the leader of the Greeks whose city should embody its high status through grand building projects as well as new walls to surround it. "Battle of the Eurymedon, c. 466 BCE." The Rhodians withdrew to Rhodes for repairs, leaving Charikleitos with 20 ships at Megiste. Use the lesson called Battle of the Eurymedon River for more on these points of interest: When the battle took place A background of the battle Where and how it was fought; Practice Exams. The battle took place off Side, when Hannibal attacked the Rhodian fleet docked in the mouth of Eurymedon River. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Dying Persianby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). [6] [29], The two armies faced off in the decisive Battle of Magnesia, north-east of Magnesia ad Sipylum. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. A great tumult arose among the Persians, and the soldiers of Cimon cut down all who came in their way, and seizing in his tent Pheredates, one of the two generals of the barbarians and a nephew of the king, they slew him; and as for the rest of the Persians, some they cut down and others they wounded, and all of them, because of the unexpectedness of the attack, they forced to take flight. The Greek forces were led by Cimon of Athens (l. c. 510 - c. 450 BCE) to a complete victory over the Persians. One Seleucid septireme was captured and 20 other ships were seriously damaged. And since it was a dark night without a moon, their bewilderment was increased all the more and not a man was able to discern the true state of affairs. Ancient History Encyclopedia. [22] In August, after a number of Rhodian sailors caught a disease which spread from the local inhabitants, Eudamus moved his fleet to the mouth of Eurymedon River. Yet the Romans were determined to crush the Seleucids once and for all. It took place in either 469 or 466 BC, in the vicinity of the mouth of the Euryme [16] During the course of 190 BC, Hannibal had focused his attention on building the Cilician fleet from scratch, his first major military command after spending five years in the Seleucid court. This is the version of the battle given by Thucydides and Plutarch. Schauenburg ascribes the utterance to the archer; his name a reference to the Battle of the Eurymedon River some time in the 460s BC, at which the Athenians prevailed. The battle of Eurymedon (or Side) of 190 B.C. The league’s ships also regularly transported troops to various Persian-held territories to liberate them while, at the same time, filling their treasury with the riches either taken from these places or given as gifts. Pottery. Cite This Work Eurymedon fought in the Indian War of Dionysus but he fled when attacked by Orontes. Whatever Athens was doing, it seemed, could not possibly matter to Xerxes I but, if he heard of its resurgence – as he probably did – it most likely added to his depression. Additional Maps for the Region. The truce was signed at Sardes in January 189 BC, whereupon Antiochus agreed to abandon his claims on all lands west of the Taurus Mountains, paid a heavy war indemnity and promised to hand over Hannibal and other notable enemies of Rome from among his allies. The Seleucids selected 10,000 infantry, 500 cavalry, 6 war elephants and 300 ships to be transferred for their campaign in Greece. Ancient Naval Battleby The Creative Assembly (Copyright). Xerxes I, alerted to Cimon’s action, finally returned to himself and ordered preparations for a large force to deal with the Greek aggression. ii 94.2 and L-S-J 9πεζός I). A sharp struggle took place and both fleets fought brilliantly, but in the end the Athenians were victorious, having destroyed many of the enemy ships and captured more than one hundred together with their crews. What, exactly, did happen after the battle is unclear. He sailed along the Caria and Lyciancoasts, sacking and reducing some poleis, driving Persian garrisons out of others, and brought many of these poleis into the League. Cimon attacked and broke the Persian line. A number of Greek city-states had been founded along the coast of Asia Minor prior to Cyrus II’s conquest and were now under Persian control. [8] The Achaean League declared war on the Seleucids and Aetolians, with the Romans following suit in November 192 BC. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the battle of Eurymedon to the latter part of the Peloponnesian War they were subject to Athens. All three narratives make clear that the battle was a complete victory for Cimon; the Persian forces were unable to regroup or counterattack at any time afterwards. The Battle of the Eurymedon (c. 466 BCE, also given as the Battle of the Eurymedon River) was a military engagement between the Greeks of the Delian League and the forces of the Achaemenid Empire toward the end of the reign of Xerxes I (r. 486-465 BCE). The historians of the time, such as Thucydides, often do not provide careful chronology or developmental details in their narratives, seeming to assume an audience would already have this information. Cimon, however, moved to attack and Ariomandes, understanding his ships would do better with more room to maneuver, came back out from the river to give battle in open water. The revolt took five years to put down and, afterwards, Darius I began preparations to punish Athens and Eretria for their interference and also expand his empire by taking Greece. Cimon, sailing from Phaselis, made to attack the Persians before the reinforcements arrived, whereupon the Persian fleet, eager to avoid fighting, retreated into the river itself. Antiochus saw his fleet as disposable, believing that he could still rout the Romans on land. Ariomandes ordered a retreat back into the river where he grounded the ships on the bank and the crews joined with the land forces in forming a defensive position. Eurymedon (468 BCE?) [33], Naval battle where Rhodes defeat the Seleucids, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_the_Eurymedon_(190_BC)&oldid=992830418, Naval battles involving the Seleucid Empire, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 09:34. The Pentecontaetia is often incorrectly understood as “fifty years of peace” when it was not. And Cimon, night having fallen, disembarked his soldiers, and being received by the Persians as a friend, he fell upon their encampment. The Seleucids thus attempted to intercept the Roman fleet before this could be achieved. Mark, Joshua J. Cimon sailed to the region to encourage further resistance, and the Persians responded by gathering a fleet, which would work in concert with their land forces to defeat Cimon and subdue these cities which could then be used to launch a third invasion of Greece. Athens had created the largest navy in Greece and, under the direction of the statesman Pericles (l. 495-429 BCE), had rebuilt the city, including the acropolis with its Parthenon. Fields denoted with an asterisk (*) are required . Bibliography He placed the general Ariomandes in charge of the overall operation with Pherendates in charge of the land troops and Xerxes I’s son Tithraustes in charge of the fleet of over 200 vessels. The Classical Period began with the Greek victory over the Persians and a new feeling of self-confidence in the Greek world. [15] When the Rhodians raised concerns about the threat of the Seleucid Cilician fleet, Aemilius assembled a mixed squadron with the intention of seizing Patara, a key Seleucid naval base in the region. Hannibal of Carthage, son of Hamilcar Barca, who was sworn to defeat Rome as a young child. The Battle of the Eurymedon was a double battle, taking place both on water and land, between the Delian League of Athens and her Allies, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I. He then focused his attention on Asia Minor, launching a successful campaign against coastal Ptolemaic possessions. He went as far as to cross the Alps in 218 BCE, despite losing most of his 37 elephants and nearly half of his 40,000 men, in order to launch a surprise attack against the Romans from the north, where they'd least expect it. The amphibious attack on Patara was repelled by the city's garrison. Start Page Maps World Battke of Eurymedon Created: 22.11.2020 Battle innit . The Battle of the Eurymedon was a double battle, taking place both on water and land, between the Delian League of Athens and her Allies, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I. Xerxes I’s son and successor, Artaxerxes I (r. 465-424 BCE) would resort to less obvious methods of striking at the Greek city-states, notably by fueling the tensions between Athens and Sparta which would lead to the Peloponnesian Wars (460-446 and 431-404 BCE) and, eventually, Athens’ defeat by the Spartans. The specific date is unknown, but it … The battle resulted in a decisive Roman-Pergamene victory. After taking Phaselis, he sailed directly for the Eurymedon river in Pa… In a word, such consternation as well as bewilderment prevailed among the Persians that most of them did not even know who it was that was attacking them. Cimon’s victory at the Eurymedon ended any hope of such an action and demoralized the Persian monarch and military. Elle empêcha également les Perses de tenter de reconquérir les cités grecques d'Asie mineure au moins jusqu'en 451 av. [17] Although Phoenician territories like Tyre and Sidon possessed the necessary combination of raw materials, technical expertise and experienced personnel, it took much longer than expected for the fleet to be completed. Delian League, confederacy of ancient Greek states under the leadership of Athens, with headquarters at Delos, founded in 478 BCE during the Greco-Persian wars. Historians have often noted that, to the Greeks, the victories at Marathon, Salamis, and Platea were epic in their importance while, to the Persians, they were seen as minor setbacks in reaching an ultimately achievable goal. The Battle of the Eurymedon, also known as the Battle of Side took place in August 190 BC. He instantly broke off his engagements to meet them. The Persian Wars was one of the rare times that several Greek city-states cooperated for the sake of all … 469 B.C Please provide your name, email, and your suggestion so that we can begin assessing any terminology changes. Once the city-states were firmly under Persian control again, and Cimon defeated, Asia Minor would have served well in launching a third invasion of Greece. Eurymedon, one of the four sons of Minos and his concubine Pareia. [29] As the Roman forces reached Maroneia, Antiochus began preparing for a final decisive battle. Cimon continued to lead a Delian League force of 300 triremes in the east: 200 Athenian with 100 allied contingents. While Hannibal managed to preserve most of his fleet, he was unable to reinforce the rest of the Seleucid navy in Ephesus which left it isolated and vulnerable. 63 The word πεζός is used of men on foot with a latent or expressed contrast to men at sea, in a chariot or on horseback (for the first see Thuc. [14] In spring 190 BC, a Rhodian squadron united with the Roman fleet off Samos, where Roman admiral Lucius Aemilius Regillus took overall command. Even so, as noted, neither were careful with the chronology of the period and so any of the above dates for the battle could be correct. In September 192 BC, Aetolian general Thoantas arrived at Antiochus' court, convincing him to openly oppose the Romans in Greece. The Battle of the Eurymedon was a double battle, taking place both on water and land, between the Delian League of Athens and her Allies, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I. Mark, published on 03 March 2020 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Contact us for further information and be sure to make a note of the URL of the photos you are interested in. (2020, March 03). Museum. Despite the emergence of pro-war party led by Scipio Africanus, the Roman Senate exercised restraint. He launched his invasion in 490 BCE and sacked Eretria but was defeated at the Battle of Marathon that same year by the Athenians and withdrew. [10], The Romans intended to invade the Seleucid base of operations in Asia Minor which could only be done by crossing the Aegean Sea, the Hellespont being the preferable option due to logistical concerns. https://www.ancient.eu/article/1516/. Between December 192 and March 191 BC, Antiochus campaigned in Thessaly and Acarnania. While there may be some truth to this overall, it certainly does not apply to Xerxes I whose character, and reign, disintegrated after his defeat. The league took its name from the island of Delos – considered a sacred space not aligned with any of the members – where the league’s treasury was kept and all agreed to be led by Athens, the city-state considered most effective in repelling the two invasions of the Persian Wars. The second Persian invasion of Greece had been repelled in 479 BCE and, in the aftermath, the Ionian Greek city-states of Asia Minor had asserted their autonomy, resisting Persian rule. "Battle of the Eurymedon, c. 466 BCE." This was an alliance of Greek city-states who banded together to help liberate Greeks from Persian rule and defend against any future invasions. The Ionian Revolt broke out in 499, but it didn't spread to Caria until 498, in the aftermath of the Ionian raid on Sardis (498). It took place in either 469 or 466 BC, in the vicinity of the mouth of the Eurymedon River (now the Köprüçay) in Pamphylia, Asia Minor. Hamburg, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe. What makes it really exciting, however, is that some of it really happened. Xerxes I Reliefby Jona Lendering (CC BY-SA). Submitted by Joshua J. Datasets available include LCSH, BIBFRAME, LC Name Authorities, LC Classification, MARC codes, PREMIS vocabularies, ISO language codes, and more. While Antiochus' cavalry overpowered his adversaries on the right flank of the battlefield, his army's center collapsed before he could reinforce it. Eumenes managed to throw the Seleucid left flank into disarray. Diodorus cites no source for this account of the battle, and it appears nowhere else except in later works citing his own. Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. It was a battle that helped shape the future o… The Battle of the Eurymedon was fought in 190 BC (approximate coordinates: 36°49'00"N, 31°10'20"E) between a Seleucid fleet and the navy of the city state of Rhodes, who were allied with the Roman Republic. Negotiations between the Romans and the Seleucids resumed, coming to a standstill once again, over differences between Greek and Roman law on the status of disputed territorial possessions. The Battle of the Eurymedonwas an important event in ancient Greek history, as many Greecian cities came together and defeated a major naval force of the Persians under between 469 and 466 BCE. In 198 BC, Antiochus emerged victorious in the Fifth Syrian War, taking over Coele-Syria and securing his south-eastern border. This was a war for freedom, and the Greeks would continue on, free from Persian rule. In 499 BCE, these city-states rebelled against Persian rule and were supported by Athens and Eretria. Linked. The situation of the city was favourable for commerce, and the Cnidians acquired considerable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of Lipara, and founded the city of Corcyra Nigra in the Adriatic. Cimon took 200 ships across the sea and landed at Caria sometime in 467-466 BCE from whence he sought to aid those cities which had declared their autonomy and joined the Delian League and force others, still loyal to Persia, to rebel and free themselves. The Battle of the Eurymedon, also known as the Battle of Side took place in August 190 BC. In 462 BC, he led an unsuccessful expedition to support the Spartans during the helot uprisings. It was fought as part of the Roman–Seleucid War, pitting the fleets of Rhodes under admiral Eudamus against a Seleucid fleet of Hannibal.. There he was informed by citizens of Aspendos that Hannibal's fleet was at Side. Diodorus Siculus gives a different account with more colorful detail: And when Cimon learned that the Persian fleet was lying off Cyprus, sailing against the barbarians he engaged them in battle, pitting two hundred and fifty ships against three hundred and forty. Half of the Seleucid ships were heavily damaged, forcing them to withdraw. A number of these city-states had no desire to leave the Persian Empire, however, recognizing they enjoyed a level of civil rights, prosperity, and security that no Greek mainland city-state could offer. With their powerful navy, Athens and the Delian League were able to easily eliminate piracy from the surrounding area and also provide aid and support to the Greek cities along the coast of Asia Minor. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. The Persian fleet, not wanting to begin battle before the Phoenician ships arrived, moved into the mouth of the Eurymedon River thinking Cimon would not follow them. A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Thank you! Hannibal used the opportunity to withdraw, evading the enemy ships sent to pursue him. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Antiochus dispatched Zeuxis and Antipater to the Romans, in order to secure a truce. They're full of magic and adventure, brave heroes and dramatic battles. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Battle of the Eurymedon: battle between the Persians and Athenians, probably fought in c.468. The Battle of Salamis was a naval battle between Greek and Persian... Robert B. Strassler & Herodotus & Robert B. Strassler & Andrea L. Purvis & Rosalind Thomas. [30] The Romans advanced through Dardanus to the River Caecus where they united with Eumenes’ army. Hannibal was likewise aware of the Rhodian fleet's whereabouts from his own lookouts. Ancient Greek stories are pretty exciting. Fearing that Antiochus will seize the entirety of Asia Minor, the independent cities Smyrna and Lampsacus decided to appeal for protection from the Roman Republic. Antiochus countered by claiming that he was simply rebuilding the empire of his ancestor Antiochus II Theos and criticized the Romans for meddling in the affairs of Asia Minor states, whose rights were traditionally defended by Rhodes. All while the Roman infantry would struggle to sustain itself, while remaining grounded in mainland Greece. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. His adversaries on the other hand, could not afford a major defeat at sea, since the manpower to commandeer a new fleet would not be available for months. In the summer of 193 BC, a representative of the Aetolian League assured Antiochus that the Aetolians would take his side in a future war with Rome, while Antiochus gave tacit support to Hannibal's plans of launching an anti-Roman coup d'état in Carthage. Categories. The more experienced Rhodians managed to quickly maneuver the six ships to the right, enabling the rest of the fleet to engage. The Greek fleet followed, and Cimon ordered his ships to also be grounded, disembarking his crews. 62 Meritt, B. D., ‘Epigrams from the Battle of Marathon’ in The Aegean and the Near East (1956) 270 f. Google Scholar. An asterisk ( * ) are required wooed the Spartans and Athenians vast! Amphibious attack on Patara was repelled by the city 's garrison has lived Greece. ) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike had gone into exile in the War between Rome and Antiochus III for! Consequently, they accepted Battle delay was most likely due to wartime shortages ships were damaged... 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